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Commission Internationale de Démographie Historique


This extra programme of the Commission Internationale de Démographie Historique will take place from Monday 23 -Friday 27 August at the International Institute of Social History, Cruquiusweg 31, 1019 AT Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Download the programme as pdf (page 1, page 2)
1.  Making Large and Complex Data Bases Easy to Use
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The historical community is now fortunate to have a growing number of large-scale, public databases of life histories from the past. Some of these databases have been under development for a long time, such as the Demographic Database in Umeå, the Utah genealogical database, the Scania database in Lund and the PRDH and BALSAC in Quebec. Others are relatively recent, such as the Historical Sample of the Netherlands.
Although many of these databases are intended to be public resources and available to any qualified researcher, relatively little work has been conducted with them. Since longitudinal databases are exceptionally rich and address a host of questions not covered by cross-sectional data, the difference is striking. One of the reasons for this relatively low use is the enormous complexity of this kind of data.
The main object of this session is to present ways of making this kind of databases more easy to use, especially for those scholars in the historical and social sciences who have no or few experience in programming. Especially papers on new ways of data retrieval, documentation and data integration are welcome
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Contributors: Prof. Dr. Hiroshi Kawaguchi & Shigenobu Sugito - Sharing Genealogical Spaces: The New World with “Alliance” Database System   Show   Download
Contributors: Prof. Dr. Hiroshi Kawaguchi & Shigenobu Sugito - Sharing Genealogical Spaces: The New World with “Alliance” Database System   Hide   Download
Sharing Genealogical Spaces: The New World with “Alliance” Database System

The authors have been developing the “Alliance” database system for analyzing the kinship of traditional families since 2000. With this system, it is possible to draw and to retrieve family trees of any types of families.
In the earliest step, “Alliance” database system was developed as a tool for the social anthropologists in order to support their field works in the aboriginal world. Now “Alliance” project started to accept the Japanese religious investigation registers which were made annually from the end of the 17th century to 1870, the Japanese family registers which were made in 1870, 1871 and 1872, the Korean family registers which were made from the beginning of the 18th century to the end of the 19th century, the kinship data of the modern Solomon Islands society, and the family data of the Tamil society in southern India.
In Australia, there has been a lot of kind of databases for kinship or genealogy. Unfortunately, each project has its own concept and less compatibility. Alliance project has been trying to provide converter programs for each of these database systems. We would like to offer the possibility of the compatibility and the universality for the genealogy databases. In our project, we will also try to find a new framework to connect the history of the family and the historical demography.
Contributors: Mr. Roger Lund & Sören Edvinsson - Abstract On improving a research infrastructure   Show   Download
Contributors: Mr. Roger Lund & Sören Edvinsson - Abstract On improving a research infrastructure   Hide   Download
Abstract On improving a research infrastructure

This presentation discusses and evaluates the work with re-organizing the tables from the Demographic Data Base at Umeå University into IDS (intermediate data structure). The ambition within the collaboration of the network “Historical Longitudinal Databases” has been to improve and facilitate the access to the complex databases available in different countries. The Demographic Data Base builds an infrastructure of historical population data for research purposes. The main source for the IDS is Swedish parish registers. The information in the database is very rich and large, and allows for the possibility to follow individuals through their lives. The rich contents and the longitudinal character of the database makes it very complex, something that can be an obstacle for potential users. In the presentation, we describe how the work has proceeded and what problems and difficulties we have had to resolve. Our general assessment is however that the work has been quite straight-forward and that IDS is an important and valuable step for integrating data from different countries and to facilitate comparative research. We furthermore discusses both the new possibilities created by IDS as well as remaining problems to be solved either by the data providers or by the researcher using the data.
Contributor: Ms. Sarah Moreels - The Antwerp COR*-database: tips and tricks on the construction of a longitudinal historical-demographic database   Show   Download
Contributor: Ms. Sarah Moreels - The Antwerp COR*-database: tips and tricks on the construction of a longitudinal historical-demographic database   Hide   Download
The Antwerp COR*-database: tips and tricks on the construction of a longitudinal historical-demographic database

This paper describes the origin, the history, structure and characteristics of a recently constructed Flemish (the Northern, Dutch-speaking part of Belgium) historical-demographic database. The so-called Antwerp COR*-database contains longitudinal and intergenerational data at the individual level and offers a unique combination of features: it spans nearly seven decades (1846 to 1920) and consists of information drawn from the population registers and the vital registration records (birth, marriage, death) of the whole district of Antwerp. From a demographical point of view, Antwerp was the logical first choice because it was the fastest growing Belgian city in the 19th century. By 1900, more than 273.000 inhabitants were living in the port city (1800: 56,000; 1846: 88,000), mainly as a result of massive immigration.

Collecting all information from the population registers and vital registration records for the whole district of Antwerp during the period 1846-1920 was not feasible. Thus, after an extensive evaluation of alternative data gathering strategies, we opted for a letter sample. Every person whose family name starts with the letter combination COR* and their kin is selected in the database. The database covers three linked generations and contains micro-data on the individual level (life courses) and intermediary data on family patterns.

The Antwerp COR*-database contains around thirty thousand complete life courses, amounting to more than 800,000 person-years. The total number of unique family names amounts to 8,032, of which 675 were COR*-family names. The number of two-generation families (parents and the children) totals 2,650 (referring to 9,486 children), for three-generation families (grandparents, parents and children) the corresponding figure is 1,157 (involving 4,381 children). The database is also expanded with contextual data. Aggregate data from the agricultural (1846), the industrial (1896 and 1910), the trade (1910) or the population censuses provide additional information on the economic and socio-demographic situation of the district of Antwerp during the 19th century. Moreover, a quarter table which indicate changing quarter boundaries through time is also available for the city of Antwerp. This additional socio-economic and cultural information at the regional and local level offers several interesting contexts for comparison.

In this paper, specific attention will be paid to (1) the linkage of a large number of data elements (from different sources) relating to individuals, and (2) the reconstruction of family characteristics, sibling systems and life courses. Tips and tricks will be given to help scholars with the construction and analysis of historical-demographic data.
Contributor: Prof. Steven Ruggles - Disseminating Historical Data on the Internet: The IPUMS Experience   Show
Contributor: Prof. Steven Ruggles - Disseminating Historical Data on the Internet: The IPUMS Experience   Hide
Disseminating Historical Data on the Internet: The IPUMS Experience

This paper will describe key innovations of IPUMS electronic dissemination tools over the past two decades, and demonstrate the capabilities of the current system. It will stress the need for
comprehensive machine-actionable metadata and the importance of data integration. Finally, it will describe the next generation of dissemination technology currently under development, which will
leverage the expertise of the IPUMS community and will provide data access and analysis tools as web services.
Contributor: Mr. Mohamed Saleh - A Pre-Modern Middle-Eastern Population Brought to Light: "Digitization of the 1848 and 1868 Egyptian Individual-Level Census Records"   Show
Contributor: Mr. Mohamed Saleh - A Pre-Modern Middle-Eastern Population Brought to Light: "Digitization of the 1848 and 1868 Egyptian Individual-Level Census Records"   Hide
A Pre-Modern Middle-Eastern Population Brought to Light: "Digitization of the 1848 and 1868 Egyptian Individual-Level Census Records"

Our knowledge about pre-modern Middle Eastern societies has been limited by the lack of data. The 1848 and 1868 Egyptian individual-level census records provide two detailed snapshots of the Egyptian population in its early attempts to make the transition into a modernized society. Carried out in the reigns of Muhammad Ali (1805-1848) and Ismail (1863-1879) respectively, the 1848 and 1868 censuses represent two of the earliest censuses in the Middle East to include information on all segments of society including females, children, and slaves. In terms of data collected, the Egyptian census records provide a unique source of information on a wide number of variables including gender, age, household relationships, type and legal status of dwelling, detailed address, occupation, nationality, ethnicity, religion, legal status of the individual, place of origin, infirmities, and physical description. This paper describes the digitization project of a 1-percent sample of the individual records in each census that I am undertaking at the National Archives of Egypt as part of my Economics PhD dissertation. The paper describes the census registers, the enumeration methodology, the sampling strategy, and the primary descriptive statistics.
Discussant: Prof. Dr. Kees Mandemakers
 
2.  The Effects of Migration on Demographic Indicators
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The standard demographic indicators for fertility, mortality and nuptiality can be greatly distorted in highly mobile populations or populations that contain many immigrants. There may be no information regarding the past histories of migrants, making even the basic determination of marital status as ever or never married difficult and this difficulty affects the ability to calculate mean ages at mariage or other standard nuptiality rates. High mobility in populations where adoption, fosterage, child labor, or child abandonment were common also complicate the estimates of fertility. Even calculation of child-woman ratios may be affected since there may be no information regarding former births for migrant women who may have left small children behind or given them to families outside the population under observation. Migration also acts as a competing risk with mortality. Moreover, the officials compiling population registers may be more interested in the de facto population than why individuals are no longer present in the population. In such cases, individuals may be removed from or drop off the record without any indication as to whether the individual had moved or died. This circumstance has the potential to distort the calculation of mortality one way or another depending on the interpretation of the unknown exits from the data. What methods have been developed to deal with these problems? How can we work around the problems presented by highly mobile populations?
At the same time, the fact of mobility may directly affect the demographic practice of migrants. The marriage market could be segmented, limiting and reducing the chance to marry. Migration could also make marriages unstable and more prone to divorce. Migrants may show different fertility levels than stable or core populations and migrants may be more vulnerable than natives. At the same time, migrants may represent the healthiest members of a population as the most capable of migrating.
So, the effect of migration upon demographic indicators can be addressed from two main directions. One is a methodological question addressing how the lack of information on migrants may complicate or distort the estimation and calculation of demographic rates. The second addresses the demographic behavior of migrants and how the choice to migrate could select people with particular demographic characteristics. I would like to suggest two panels; one addressing the methodological concern and one addressing demographic behavior.
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Contributors: Prof. Dr. Mary Louise Nagata & Kiyoshi Hamano - Analyzing Leaving Home and the Life Course for a Mobile urban Population: Leaving Home in 19th Century Kyoto”   Show
Contributors: Prof. Dr. Mary Louise Nagata & Kiyoshi Hamano - Analyzing Leaving Home and the Life Course for a Mobile urban Population: Leaving Home in 19th Century Kyoto”   Hide
Analyzing Leaving Home and the Life Course for a Mobile urban Population: Leaving Home in 19th Century Kyoto”

Analysis of the annual population registers for Kyoto neighborhoods in the late Tokugawa period, 1843-1868, reveals that the numbers of youths, males ages 11-28 and females ages 15-23, listed as kin members of households in these neighborhoods are greatly reduced compared to younger and older age periods. At the same time, the numbers of young people of these age groups appearing in the registers is greatly inflated with the majority appearing as servants employed by various households in these neighborhoods. Examination of servants employed in households where there is an unbroken series of annual registers also shows a high rate of turnover in these servants with most remaining with one employer for only a year or two, if that long. Similarly, the records of departures from households in the neighborhood record sons and daughters leaving for service or returning from service, but these records are much fewer and less reliable with many departures and entries simply labeled “gone” or “enter into the register”. Many households in these neighborhoods also move and are observed only 1-5 years. Moreover, many neighborhood register collections only contain 1-5 registers and have major gaps in the series.
In this study, we plan to investigate whether young men and women circulated among multiple employers during their period of life-cycle service. In other words, when these young employees disappeared from the employer’s household because they were “let go”, did they return home never to enter into service again or return home to try again with some other employer?
Contributor: Mr. Mohamed Saleh - Muslems, Christians, and Jews in 19th and 20th Century Egypt: Human Capital Differences and Urban Segregation   Show
Contributor: Mr. Mohamed Saleh - Muslems, Christians, and Jews in 19th and 20th Century Egypt: Human Capital Differences and Urban Segregation   Hide
Muslems, Christians, and Jews in 19th and 20th Century Egypt: Human Capital Differences and Urban Segregation

The role of religion in Medieval and pre-modern Middle Eastern societies was substantial.
People resorted to the religious institutions to provide basic education for their children.
Religious groups were usually living in ghettos (the degree of segregation was varying by the
religious group) perhaps in order to have easy access to the religious services provided by the
mosques, churches, or synagogues or to have easier access to jobs. This crucial role of
religion was also reflected in significant differences across the religious groups with respect
to educational and occupational attainment. In many parts of the Middle East, the non-Muslim
minorities enjoyed on average higher education levels than Muslims and had an occupational
distribution that was relatively more skewed towards "skilled" jobs or jobs that require
literacy and numeracy. As these Middle Eastern societies moved forward towards modernity
in the 19th and 20th centuries, the role of religion started to diminish, and the religious
institutions were (at least partially) replaced by "secular" ones. However, the differences
across religious groups remained a hotly-debated issue in these countries even in the first
decade of the 21st century. Documenting these differences, their evolution over time, and how
they reacted to modernization, and investigating the historical roots of these differences and
the factors that shaped the membership in these religious groups are of utmost importance in
order to have a better understanding of these societies. Also, such study can be extended to
understand the inter-religion differences in various parts of the world by resorting to their
historical roots. To tackle these issues, this project employs two new sources of data from
Egypt, one of the largest Middle Eastern countries (in terms of population): Individual-level
census records from 1848 and 1868 and Village/Quarter-level data (1897-1986).
Contributor: Ms. Yelena Zimovina - Migration flows and Changes of Ethnodemographic Models of Kazakhstan in the 20 Century   Show   Download
Contributor: Ms. Yelena Zimovina - Migration flows and Changes of Ethnodemographic Models of Kazakhstan in the 20 Century   Hide   Download
Migration flows and Changes of Ethnodemographic Models of Kazakhstan in the 20 Century

Kazakhstan is one of the biggest Countries of Central Asia. However, demographic situation here was not stability during 20 Century. Important role in this process played migration.

20 century was the inconsistent and complex period in a history of Kazakhstan. During 20 centuries the countries and population of Kazakhstan have gone through set of demographic shocks. Grandiose losses of the population have taken place in first half of 20 centuries: during revolt 1916, revolutionary events of 1917, civil war 1918-1920, collectivization and famine, repressions 30-th-50-th, during Second World War. Such turn of crisis situations has affected, first of all, on demographic structures: number of some peoples was reduced, there were essential changes in age structure, the ethnic picture of Kazakhstan has changed. The mechanism of demographic modernization gradually starts to operate in such spheres as fertility and mortality. However, at the given stage such traditional demographic aims, as early age of the introduction into a marriage, orientation on having many children, practical absence of means of contraception still are valid. It is possible to tell, that the traditional type of demographic behavior is still kept, but there is his gradual modernization. In this period migration flows were undulate and influenced on ethnodemographic structure of Kazakhstan a lot.

In second half of 20 centuries process of demographic modernization is quickened. During this period demographic models of Kazakhstan undergo essential changes. First of all, to modernized changes fertility has undergone: change of reproductive aims of people has involved in decrease in a level of birth rate, to a wide circulation of various methods of regulation of fertility (first of all, abortions), to reduction of the sizes of family and gradual increase in age of the getting married. Mortality was modernized: we can observe decrease of death rates (crude and specific death rates), have changed life expectancy parameters. At last, there was a gradual change of age structure of the population of Kazakhstan and process of demographic ageing was designated. All these events testify to fast rates of modernization of demographic models of Kazakhstan in the second half of the 20 century. More over, activation of migration processes became one of the nagging problems of Kazakhstan in this period.

Generally, immigration and emigration flows influenced on the changes of ethnodemographic models of Kazakhstan during 20 century
Discussant: Dr. Marie Pierre Arrizabalaga
 
3.  Family, demography and well-being: historical perspectives on Eastern Europe I
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In contrary to Western Europe, the European East has usually been portrayed as the area par excellence of large and complex households. These supposed differences have been either attributed to more “collectivist” character of the Slavic populations, or were treated as arising from peasants’ survival strategies within the coercive system of serfdom. Such an East-West polarized distinction of family patterns in Europe is a cornerstone of a more general package of ideas, which posits links between the assumed peculiarity of the Eastern European family system and a high-pressure demographic environment of excessive fertility and high mortality, poverty, persistence of anti-modern values, unequal well-being (including constrained female autonomy), and other obstacles to the penetration of capitalism and its individualistic set of values. The aim of this session is to make a first step towards dismantling critically this package of ideas through the investigation of the links between family (e.g. household structure; domestic and individual life cycles; childbearing patterns; fertility strategies), demographic regimes (patterns of marriage; demo-economic hardships; the effects of demographic transition), and people’s emotional, social and physical well-being, and their ability to function in the ordinary tasks of living in the Eastern European context.
Since our intention is to open up a discussion of a rather undeveloped research area, papers are welcome which tackle the problem from various angles and perspectives (be it a historical-demographic, social-economic history or anthropological approaches), but in which particular attention is given to family and population issues broadly defined. The session’s geographical scope takes J. Hajnal’s division of Europe as the point of departure, and hence its main focus on the territories lying east of the “imaginary line” running from St. Petersburg to Trieste, so to include the Balkan area, historical Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Bohemia, Hungary, as well as the European part of Russia.
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Contributor: Dr. Daniela Detesan - Transylvanian family without marriage. Understanding present family models from the past in a comparative European perspective   Show
Contributor: Dr. Daniela Detesan - Transylvanian family without marriage. Understanding present family models from the past in a comparative European perspective   Hide
Transylvanian family without marriage. Understanding present family models from the past in a comparative European perspective

The rapid increase in the number of unmarried families (families without marriage) has become a general European, even global problem nowadays. Specialists in human and social sciences have tried to understand its evolution. The major changes in the marital behavior represent the obvious consequence of the economic, social, political and cultural development. By investigating and interpreting the past we shall be able to answer questions related to unmarried families’ model, the causes and the elements favoring such a model, the formation mechanism, the territorial-geographic spread, the partners’ social and economic status, their legal status, age, religion, the image they created themselves in the society. The advantage of such a research is that it links the past to the present and to the future in a clear, measurable manner.
The paper intends to make a thorough quantitative and qualitative analysis of unmarried families’ model and of births resulted from unmarried families in Transylvania between 1850-1910. By comparing and by inter-disciplinary analysis we shall extend our research to the European level, beginning with the second half of the XIX-th century up to the present times. We shall emphasize both theoretical and practical aspects, starting from the particular to the general. We rely on various sources (parochial registers, church documents, population censuses, press and periodic publications, memoirs), on combined techniques and methods (studies on specific cases, compared causal analysis, demographic investigation, longitudinal micro-analysis). The project’s key components follow two distinct directions: a thorough research of the past and understanding of contemporary world.
Contributor: Dr. Siegfried Gruber - Are multiple family households a means for economic success and a better living standard in the Balkans?   Show   Download
Contributor: Dr. Siegfried Gruber - Are multiple family households a means for economic success and a better living standard in the Balkans?   Hide   Download
Are multiple family households a means for economic success and a better living standard in the Balkans?

One of the controversies around multiple family households is about their economic success. On the one hand is the notion of these households hindering economic and other progress in pointing to the fact that the countries of Eastern and Southeastern Europe clearly lagged behind in economic and other progress as compared to societies in the northwest of Europe with their nuclear families and individualistic and capitalist thinking. On the other hand these households were described as being a means to prevent pauperisation of the peasantry and the fragmentation of land. The paper investigates the economic success of multiple family households in comparison to nuclear families for Serbia and Albania based on census and tax lists from the 19th and 20th centuries.
Contributor: Dr. Silvia Sovic - The East-West Paradigm in Family History and Other Disciplines   Show
Contributor: Dr. Silvia Sovic - The East-West Paradigm in Family History and Other Disciplines   Hide
The East-West Paradigm in Family History and Other Disciplines

The historiography of the family in recent decades has been very technical, and consequently also somewhat isolated from other areas of research. Nonetheless it has a context, which this paper will seek to explore. The typology of Laslett and his followers was developed at a time when quantitative approaches to history, and methodologies for researching it in a ‘modern’, ‘scientific’ way, were becoming fashionable. It was also at the height of the Cold War, and though no explicit connections were made between the conclusions of this group of researchers and the political circumstances of the time, this background should not be ignored. Hajnal’s famous line from Trieste to Leningrad is strikingly close to the Iron Curtain that had descended on Europe much more recently than the phenomena that he was describing. The ‘Hajnal line’ has dominated the historiography of the family like few other historical theses; there can be few dissertations or articles in this area that do not take it as the point of departure. So what family historians have been doing in the last 40 years is a classic instance of ‘Westernism’, an ethnocentric approach which argues the exceptionalism of a small but deeply influential region, and which makes ‘large cultural’ assumptions about the rest of the world. The phenomenon can be found across many disciplines, but few have adopted it with less awareness of what they were doing. This paper will adduce other examples of Westernism to illustrate the dangers of the approach. Our habit of presupposing fundamental structural differences between East and West fits with a mindset that is deeply problematic. That does not of course in itself invalidate the findings of scholars in the field, but it does mean that greater caution and self-awareness should inform the approach to the subject.
Contributor: Dr. Konrad Wnęk - Family in West Galicia - Small, Medium and Big City Examples from 1869   Show
Contributor: Dr. Konrad Wnęk - Family in West Galicia - Small, Medium and Big City Examples from 1869   Hide
Family in West Galicia - Small, Medium and Big City Examples from 1869

The paper entitled „Family in West Galicia – Small, Medium and Big City Examples from 1869” has been written to compare three kinds of communities living in Western Galicia. The differing factor was the size of the cities, the smallest of which had about four thousand inhabitants, the medium was twice as numerous and the biggest, Kraków, was inhabited by almost 50 thousand people. The basis of analysis were the surveys of the censuses in which the detailed information on the examined population was included. The censuses, which were regularly carried out in Austro-Hungarian monarchy hold the small numbers of materials letting the reconstruction of the household and family structure. These are available for the three examined cities starting from 1869 and it was the reason for their usage.
Thanks to the survey carried out it was possible to reconstruct the households, families, age, marital status, the place of birth of the families' members and in some cases their occupations or the source of their income. The results received let me assess on the large scale the similarities and the differences occurring according to the religious criterion as well as the size of the city analyzed.
Discussant: Dr. Jan Kok
 
4.  Family, demography and well-being: historical perspectives on Eastern Europe II
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In contrary to Western Europe, the European East has usually been portrayed as the area par excellence of large and complex households. These supposed differences have been either attributed to more “collectivist” character of the Slavic populations, or were treated as arising from peasants’ survival strategies within the coercive system of serfdom. Such an East-West polarized distinction of family patterns in Europe is a cornerstone of a more general package of ideas, which posits links between the assumed peculiarity of the Eastern European family system and a high-pressure demographic environment of excessive fertility and high mortality, poverty, persistence of anti-modern values, unequal well-being (including constrained female autonomy), and other obstacles to the penetration of capitalism and its individualistic set of values. The aim of this session is to make a first step towards dismantling critically this package of ideas through the investigation of the links between family (e.g. household structure; domestic and individual life cycles; childbearing patterns; fertility strategies), demographic regimes (patterns of marriage; demo-economic hardships; the effects of demographic transition), and people’s emotional, social and physical well-being, and their ability to function in the ordinary tasks of living in the Eastern European context.
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Contributors: Dr. Lorena Anton & Laurence Kotobi - Letting home the past? Family, Demography and Migration in Postcommunism Romania   Show
Contributors: Dr. Lorena Anton & Laurence Kotobi - Letting home the past? Family, Demography and Migration in Postcommunism Romania   Hide
Letting home the past? Family, Demography and Migration in Postcommunism Romania

From 1966 to 1989, the Romanian Communist Party prohibited by law the right to pregnancy interruption, all in the name of the sanctity of the Romanian communist nation. In the public sphere, reproduction was fundamentally associated with ‘the nation’ and its needs, and the family became a ‘reproductive unit’. After the fall of the communist regime, the demographic boom intended by Ceauşescu’s regime arrived not only to its end, but to counter-consequences: the Romanian ‘traditional’ family steadily but certainly decreased in number, in direct relation with phenomena like generalized family planning, continuation of the former abortion-culture or intense migration.
The main aim of our paper will be to discuss the manifestation of the intersubjectivities developed between demography, memory of past political pronatalism, and postcommunist migration, as well as their consequences on the contemporary Romanian family. The analysis is based on an extensive oral-history fieldwork started in 2003 on the memory of abortion during communist Romania, as well as on a recently developed fieldwork on the Romanian immigrants in France and their reproductive health practices, and has as theoretical background the interdisciplinary fields of Memory Studies and Migration Studies.
Contributor: Dr. Piotr Guzowski - The influence of economic situation on Polish peasants families, household structures and lifecucle in the late Middle Ages and early modern period   Show
Contributor: Dr. Piotr Guzowski - The influence of economic situation on Polish peasants families, household structures and lifecucle in the late Middle Ages and early modern period   Hide
The influence of economic situation on Polish peasants families, household structures and lifecucle in the late Middle Ages and early modern period

The paper will focus on economic, social and demographic condition of Polish peasant families in the 15th and 16th centuries. Social and economic status will be examined as factors influencing the size of peasant families and the time span of their economic activity and life cycle. Chronologically, the paper will cover the period of transformation from rent economy to manorialism and the time when, according to historians, second serfdom was becoming common. The data will be obtained from village court rolls from Polish-Ruthenian ethnic borderland (Sanok region).
Contributor: Dr. Mikolaj Szoltysek - Vulnerable populations in the Late Eitheenth-Century Eastern Europe: Residential Rules of Stem- and Joint-Family Societies Compared   Show
Contributor: Dr. Mikolaj Szoltysek - Vulnerable populations in the Late Eitheenth-Century Eastern Europe: Residential Rules of Stem- and Joint-Family Societies Compared   Hide
Vulnerable populations in the Late Eitheenth-Century Eastern Europe: Residential Rules of Stem- and Joint-Family Societies Compared

Generalizing about the historical functions of the household in various parts of Europe can be conducted through looking at the macro-regional family and marriage patterns posited by Hajnal and Laslett as corresponding to contrasting systems of labor organization, welfare provision and family well-being. In England and, possibly also in other north-western European areas, where neo-local family formation practices prevailed the contribution of coresident non-conjugal kin to familial work force was negligible, and collective provisions were often called upon to shield the needy individuals, while life-cycle service served to provide ‘a quasi-familial remedy’ for labor shortages caused by unfavourable stages of family life cycle of nuclear households. Such a pattern of relationships was contrasted with what – following P. Horden - had come to be known as ‘extended well-being’, with the implication being that complex families (believed to dominate in the Eastern and Meditterranean part of Europe) had functioned as ‘private institutions’ to redistribute the poverty of nuclear families with the aid of the benefits of the kinship system, and also as a locus for risk-sharing. According to this widely held view, joint family systems were generally better prepared to escape a life cycle induced poverty, because in such systems peasant families held to a multiple family structure for the most part of their developmental cycle. Extended households, due to relatively larger labor forces, often had the potential for superior economic performance as indicated by their productive capacity. More importantly, the persistence of strong family and kinship ties in Eastern Europe was believed to create a far greater sense of obligation towards members of the kinship group, and also a much stronger family solidarity. Such family solidarity, in turn, facilitated support for the elderly and other needy individuals more efficiently than in nuclear family systems.
The paper explores one of the largest collections of historical household data in Europe on preindustrial rural settings - 27.000 peasant households from territories of the present day Poland, Belarus, Ukraine and Lithuania at the end of eighteenth-century. It applies a variety of methodologies to reveal various aspects of family systems and residential patterns in that part of historical Eastern Europe. The author capitalizes on the recent discovery of three distinguishable family patterns on the historical Polish territories (Szo³tysek 2008a, 2008b) and focuses the present analysis on answering two major questions: (1) Does the distinction between different household regimes in Eastern Europe have any implications for families well-being and the way they performed their welfare functions towards the most vulnerable? (2) Which family system was ‘better’ for the vulnerable, afflicted and the elderly?
Contributor: Dr. Lidia A. Zyblikiewicz - Evolution or Stagnation? Families and Households in Krakow in the Second Hald of the 19th Century   Show
Contributor: Dr. Lidia A. Zyblikiewicz - Evolution or Stagnation? Families and Households in Krakow in the Second Hald of the 19th Century   Hide
Evolution or Stagnation? Families and Households in Krakow in the Second Hald of the 19th Century

The article presents the household and family structure of population in Krakow in the second half of the 19th century on the basis of the questionnaires used in general population censuses which were conducted in 1857, 1869, 1880 and 1890. The most interesting point of the paper is a question: have we any changes in the households structure in Krakow in this time, have we any sign typical for the societies which were about to enter the industrialisation era?
The source basis for the analyses are census questionnaires of 1857, 1869, 1880 and 1890 stored in the Krakow National Archives. Unfortunately, the census questionnaires of 1900 have not been preserved, we can only find detailed group records but without household specification, only with the details of certain people. It does not allow for the analysis of the families and households because we can rarely trace family relations of particular people, which still concerns only nuclear families, and there are no grounds which would allow to ascribe a particular person to a household.
The data taken from the census questionnaires have been transferred into the computer database. The first and the third census (1857 and 1880) have been thoroughly analysed, whereas the second and the fourth one (1869 and 1890) have been analysed using a systematic statistical sample.
Discussant: Dr. Siegfried Gruber
 
5.  Inheritance systems in comparative perspective I
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Many researchers specialized on the history of the family, economics, and migration (among other research fields) have been led to study inheritance systems as a way to explain household structures, property transmission practices, and individual equal or unequal treatment within propertied families, especially in areas of small agricultural ownership. This session intends to generate a broad, comparative discussion on the various inheritance practices, on the various types of household structures (with or without coresidence), and on the various ways individuals were treated to draw a larger picture of the different systems across Europe and other continents perhaps, and provide a broad, synthetic overview of all systems, and explain migration patterns.
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Contributor: Dr. Jim Brown - Life courses of non-heirs in landholding households in Lower Austria, 1788-1848   Show
Contributor: Dr. Jim Brown - Life courses of non-heirs in landholding households in Lower Austria, 1788-1848   Hide
Life courses of non-heirs in landholding households in Lower Austria, 1788-1848

Studies of inheritance systems have focused for the most part on heirs in landholding households. Non-heirs have been less studied as they usually move out of their birth households. Tracking their movements after leaving is difficult without longitudinal data linked across households. Using such data for two parishes in Lower Austria between 1788 and 1848, this paper will follow non-heirs in property owning households to examine whether by being a non-heir they suffer downward mobility when they become servants or form non-landholding households, or maintain or even increase their status in comparison with their birth households when they become head or spouse of head of another landholding household.
Contributors: Dr. Erwin Karel & Richard Paping - The transfer of farms in Dutch commercial and peasant rural societies, 1740-2000: two cases compared   Show
Contributors: Dr. Erwin Karel & Richard Paping - The transfer of farms in Dutch commercial and peasant rural societies, 1740-2000: two cases compared   Hide
The transfer of farms in Dutch commercial and peasant rural societies, 1740-2000: two cases compared

Because of the large differences within the country very different agricultural systems were existing next to each other in the Netherlands. In the coastal area commercial market-oriented agricultural characterized by large farms, went together with proletarianization and high specialization. In the more inland area (outside proto-industrial regions), usually a majority of the rural population had a small farm of their own, the few agricultural labourers had mini-holdings and non-agricultural activities were less developed, but land reclamation was still possible. Around 1800 surplus agriculture was the rule. In the course of the 19th and 20th century both kind of societies underwent enormous changes, making them more the same, especially in the 20th century.
In this paper we want to ask the question if these large differences in economic structure also resulted in different inheritance practices. Were commercial farmers families less attached to the family farm, and more inclined to sell it than the peasant families in the less commercial regions. Were there differences in the position of sons and daughters in the chances to succeed on the family farm? What were the chances of the children the farmers to obtain a farm? Played celibate, high age at marriage and extended and stem families a different role in the transfer of farms to the next generations? Was there a relation between the age at marriage and the taking over of the farm? Was there a difference in effect of the high rise in income per capita (possibility to retire) and the increasing population (larger number of surviving children) in both systems?
Using databases on the history of about 60 farms and the farmer families in both commercial Marne (province of Groningen) and more peasant-like Oosterhesselen (province of Drenthe) we want to address these and related questions for a long period. Because of privacy reasons the data on personal characteristics stretch till the first decennia of the 20th century, however information on the relation between the succeeding farmers is available until the end of the 20th century.
Contributor: Dr. Beatrice Moring - Legislation and Reality- Inheritance and property transmission in the Nordic countries in comparison with southern and central Europe   Show
Contributor: Dr. Beatrice Moring - Legislation and Reality- Inheritance and property transmission in the Nordic countries in comparison with southern and central Europe   Hide
Legislation and Reality- Inheritance and property transmission in the Nordic countries in comparison with southern and central Europe

The aim of the contribution is to analyse the inheritance systems and property transmission among farmers in the Nordic countries. It will highlight divergence between regions within the North and the similarities or differences with those in southern and central Europe. The questions will also be discussed against the background of concepts of ownership and inheritance in Germanic and Roman law.
The intention is to show how specific local conditions have influenced the way legislation has been developed and interpreted. Examples will also be given of the means that have been used to attain goals conceived as vital for the families in question while contrary to or on cross purposes with the letter of the law.
The effect of the property transmission and inheritance practice will also be analysed as a factor shaping the nature and composition of the household as will the interaction between family economy, household composition and the environment in the wider sense of the word.

Contributor: Ms. Alice Velkova - Household formation in Bohemia: inheritance practice and family strategy, 17th-19th centuries   Show
Contributor: Ms. Alice Velkova - Household formation in Bohemia: inheritance practice and family strategy, 17th-19th centuries   Hide
Household formation in Bohemia: inheritance practice and family strategy, 17th-19th centuries

The paper will concern on two main topics. The first of them will focus on the household formation in Bohemia and its transformation during the period under study. The household formation system is an important component in the research of peasant society. In addition, it makes possible to compare various cultural backgrounds. The paper will concentrate on the formation of households in Bohemia, which will be presented in the comparative perspective with other regions of North-Western Europe. The main followed issues will be related to a number of households´ members and their relationships. The most important was a head of household which disposed of an authority and power over the other persons. Who could be such a head of household? In which age did men or women usually become the head of household? In which age groups did people most often use a position of the household´s head? How did develop their position in the household during their lifecycle? Which place in the society did have women as heads of household? How often did the women gain such a position? All these questions should be answer in the first part of the contribution.
The second part will deal with the inheritance practice, which is in a close connection with household formation system. The inheritance practice represented rules which influenced not only a formation of the household, but also the family strategy. Bohemia is a very interesting region for research such questions. The most common inheritance practice was that an heir became the youngest farmer´s son till the end of the 18th century. Farmers couldn´t choose another heir without an agreement of landlords. The situation changed after 1786 when the farmers were permitted to bequeath their farm through a testament. They could determine on their heir voluntarily from this time. If they didn´t use this right, the heir became the oldest son, according the law. All these changes interfered extremely not only with the household formation´s system, but also with the family strategy, because these both spheres influenced each other. The main goal of the second part of the contribution will be also show, how the strategy of an individual persons and their position in the household changed in the 19th century, when new rules were valid.
Discussant: Dr. Beatrice Craig
 
6.  Inheritance systems in comparative perspective II
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Many researchers specialized on the history of the family, economics, and migration (among other research fields) have been led to study inheritance systems as a way to explain household structures, property transmission practices, and individual equal or unequal treatment within propertied families, especially in areas of small agricultural ownership. This session intends to generate a broad, comparative discussion on the various inheritance practices, on the various types of household structures (with or without coresidence), and on the various ways individuals were treated to draw a larger picture of the different systems across Europe and other continents perhaps, and provide a broad, synthetic overview of all systems, and explain migration patterns.
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Contributor: Dr. Marie Pierre Arrizabalaga - Inheritance practices and co-residence in Pyrenean families and Pyrenean emigrants’ families in the nineteenth century   Show
Contributor: Dr. Marie Pierre Arrizabalaga - Inheritance practices and co-residence in Pyrenean families and Pyrenean emigrants’ families in the nineteenth century   Hide
Inheritance practices and co-residence in Pyrenean families and Pyrenean emigrants’ families in the nineteenth century

In a new research project I am currently undertaking, I would like to analyze and compare inheritance practices and household structures among Pyrenean families who either remained in their region of birth or emigrated to the United States in the second half of the nineteenth century and the early twentieth century. Those Pyreneans originated from areas where single inheritance was commonplace in the nineteenth century, where unequal inheritance practices prevailed despite the implementation of the civil code, and where a single child, among whom women were often selected, inherited the family patrimony. Many studies have proved these facts and demonstrated the prevailing ancient Pyrenean practices until recently. The question that I now intend to start to analyze concerns emigrants’ practices. When they settled in the United States as property owners of some sort, did they maintain the old traditional practices of single inheritance? Did they reproduce the Pyrenean house system after creating their own house and business in America? Did they continue to organize as stem families, several married couples, one at each generation, residing together in the same house? If that was so, how did they maintain these old traditional practices? Could they do as they wished (as the law allowed) or did they have to adapt to new legal, economic, and cultural conditions? This is a completely new research ground which requires intense investigation which I am now starting to undertake. At the conference I will attempt to present the early conclusions.
Contributor: Ms. Begoña Elizalde - The stem family in Navarra (1887-2001)   Show   Download
Contributor: Ms. Begoña Elizalde - The stem family in Navarra (1887-2001)   Hide   Download
The stem family in Navarra (1887-2001)

This paper analyzes the main changes that took place in the family and inheritance systems from the North and Center of Navarra over the twentieth century.
At the end of the nineteenth century, Navarra (North of Spain) was mostly a rural region. 72% of the population worked in the primary sector and 82% lived in rural areas. For centuries, Navarra had been characterized by the coexistence of two different inheritance practices. The non-egalitarian was the norm in the North and Center of the region, while families in the South divided their properties among all children. These different traditions, documented since 15th century, were still present at the end of the 19th century.
The 20th century brought major structural changes to this region, including a rapid process of economic industrialization and urbanization. In less than 100 years (1996), the percentage of people working in the primary sector went down to 9%, and the people leaving in rural areas decreased to 55%. This evolution had a direct impact on the family practices of the non-egalitarian areas. Children’s income was not subject to family’s properties (via inheritance) but rather on external sources. This separation between family and resources brought about major changes on the roles and responsibilities of family members. The figure of “universal heir” that would stay at the parental house taking care of the parents and working on the family land was no longer relevant.
This paper will analyze how families re-defined their domestic solutions and inheritance systems in this changing environment. In the past, family systems have shown a strong capacity to adapt to major social transformations, maintaining their basic characteristics over centuries. Thus, the concept of “universal heir” and the stem-family (co-residence with parents) was embedded in the culture of these areas; over generations, people accepted these practices as the best way to manage family properties and care. This work will study how families adjusted to the new situation; up to what extent co-residence with parents is still a common decision; and whether or not this domestic solution is linked to inheritance. This will help understand better the current concept of family and what are the challenges actual families are facing today.
Contributor: Dr. Piotr Guzowski - The role of Polish peasant women in inheritance system (15th-16th centuries)   Show
Contributor: Dr. Piotr Guzowski - The role of Polish peasant women in inheritance system (15th-16th centuries)   Hide
The role of Polish peasant women in inheritance system (15th-16th centuries)

The theses presented in the paper are based on the analysis of village court rolls as not only legal documents but also the records of social and economic lives of Polish peasants in the past. For the purposes of this paper, the rolls have been used as a primary source of information about inheritance patterns. The rolls reveal that in Polish peasant families female and male heirs were treated equally in the eyes of law and their shares in the inheritance were supposed to be equal. The paper is concerned also with the situation of peasant widows and their relations with children in the context of inheritance patterns.
Discussant: Prof. Dr. Anne-Lise Head-König
 
7.  Inheritance systems in comparative perspective III
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Many researchers specialized on the history of the family, economics, and migration (among other research fields) have been led to study inheritance systems as a way to explain household structures, property transmission practices, and individual equal or unequal treatment within propertied families, especially in areas of small agricultural ownership. This session intends to generate a broad, comparative discussion on the various inheritance practices, on the various types of household structures (with or without coresidence), and on the various ways individuals were treated to draw a larger picture of the different systems across Europe and other continents perhaps, and provide a broad, synthetic overview of all systems, and explain migration patterns.
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Contributor: Dr. Marius Eppel - Le mariage mixte en Transylvanie au XIXe siècle   Show
Contributor: Dr. Marius Eppel - Le mariage mixte en Transylvanie au XIXe siècle   Hide
Le mariage mixte en Transylvanie au XIXe siècle

The human being’s identity supposes its belonging to a religious community, an ethnic group, and a nation; this belonging can either be inherited or obtained throughout life by the socialization process. Throughout history, until the end of the First World War, most of the peoples in Central and South-Eastern Europe lived in an almost permanent insecurity related to their borders and ethnic identity, as well as to their confessional one. Obviously, such a rich geopolitical inheritance left deep roots in their collective consciousness; thus, every generation invented and deposited chlichés, mentalities and ethnic images both about itself and about the others, wich in time became natural rules of their daily existence. The paper tries to offer some guidelines regarding the way in wich the Transylvanian inhabitants perceived the issue of mixed marriages at the end of the Modern era, especially because the legislative changes made in the Hungarian state in 1895 (the secularization of the registration at the registry office) caused mental mutations. The effects of these laws through which the state took the place of the Church as to the control of the fundamental moments in the individual’s life (birth, marriages, death) were also felt in a certain „liberalization” of mixted marriages mainly from the religious point of view. Thus, after 1895, the Church had to accept more easily the mixted confessional marriages, in order not to lose their parishioners who were not pleased with the intransigence of their spiritual leaders. At the same time, the mental openness of the ethnic groups living in Hungary at the time suffered weak mutations translated in a greater availability from a mixed marriage. However, statictics show the variation of this phenomenon depending on the environement (urban or rural), on the ethnic and confessional concentration in one region or another, and on the historical traditions and the mentality of that time.
Contributor: Drs. Gabriella Nordin - Adopting or Rejecting a New Culture? Marriage patterns among Sami settled under the impact of the colonization process in 19th Century Northern Sweden   Show   Download
Contributor: Drs. Gabriella Nordin - Adopting or Rejecting a New Culture? Marriage patterns among Sami settled under the impact of the colonization process in 19th Century Northern Sweden   Hide   Download
Adopting or Rejecting a New Culture? Marriage patterns among Sami settled under the impact of the colonization process in 19th Century Northern Sweden

The predominant inhabitants in the northern Sweden were until the beginning of 19th century the Sami people, indigenous and often nomadic reindeer breeders. As the colonization process of the northern part of the country progressed, it led to increasing contacts between Sami people and Swedes. To some extent there were also Sami people who settled down, chiefly from the forest Sami group, but the majority of the settlers where newcomers. Although previous historical research has focused on the nomadic Sami people, those settled have so far attracted less attention about their demographic behaviour. Knowing their marriage pattern helps illuminate what happens when people from different cultures meet; did the cultural and social grounds shift? And further, did the marriage behaviour among Sami people change when they settled down? Did the Sami people who settled down adopt Swedish cultural grounds or were they more inclined to follow their old traditions and marry within their own group? The main purpose of this paper is thus to explore whether a settled life affected the way Sami people chose to make decisions of decisive importance, in this paper represented by the way people chose whom and when to marry? To meet the aim of this analysis world unique parish registers stored at the Demographic Data Base (DDB), Umeå University are utilized.

Contributor: Dana-Maria Rus - Modèle familial et choix du conjoint dans une société frontalière au 19e siècle   Show
Contributor: Dana-Maria Rus - Modèle familial et choix du conjoint dans une société frontalière au 19e siècle   Hide
Modèle familial et choix du conjoint dans une société frontalière au 19e siècle

La societe frontaliere roumaine de 19e siecle a ete mise en place par l'Empire autrichienne. Le fait d'etablir un systeme des frontieres militaires a supprime la competence des nobles pour 1/3 du territoire de Transylvanie, provoquant une rupture dans l'ancien systeme de gouvernement. Le Regiment roumain a fonctionne pour la periode 1762-1851 sur le territoire situe au nord-est du Transylvanie. Le modèle familial qui s'est developpe a l'interieur de cet formation militaire etait assez particulier, etant donne que la formation du couple etait attentif sourveille par les autorites militaires autrichiennes. Le choix du conjoint etait restreinte aux villages frontalieres a cause des conditions particulieres.
Contributor: Ms. Beatrice Zucca Micheletto - Les souhaites des parents : héritage, travail et genre dans les testaments des milieux urbains à l’époque moderne (Turin, XVIII)   Show
Contributor: Ms. Beatrice Zucca Micheletto - Les souhaites des parents : héritage, travail et genre dans les testaments des milieux urbains à l’époque moderne (Turin, XVIII)   Hide
Les souhaites des parents : héritage, travail et genre dans les testaments des milieux urbains à l’époque moderne (Turin, XVIII)

Comme on le sait, l’historiographie s’est toujours intéressée d’une façon prioritaire aux systèmes d’héritage du monde rural. Depuis quelques années une nouvelle attention a été portée sur les fortunes (immobilières et non immobilières) des couches sociales urbaines, mais finalement, leurs systèmes d’héritage ainsi que l’articulation entre norme et pratique qui en écoule demeurent encore très peu explorés.

Mon intervention envisage étudier les formes de transmission des biens dans les milieux artisanaux de la ville de Turin au XVIIIe siècle, en travaillant un corpus des testaments rédigés par hommes et femmes. Traditionnellement, l’historiographie s’est consacrée surtout à la norme, c’est-à-dire à la mise au point et au déchiffrement des différents systèmes d’héritage. Par contre mon intervention se propose d’étudier les pratiques et les stratégies des transmissions et par le biais de celles-ci interroger le passage des ressources familiales, du travail et du savoir-faire, et éventuellement, de l’entreprise familiale dès pères et/ou dès mères aux enfants.
Comme plusieurs études le démontrent, dans les sociétés de l’Ancien Régime la perte prématurée d’un parent était une expérience partagée parmi plusieurs enfants. Cela signifie que dans les testaments pères et mères exprimaient souvent des souhaits par rapport au destin et à propos du futur de leurs enfants. Or, ma proposition envisage étudier les dynamiques de transmission des ressources (biens, travail et ressources relationnelles surtout) en considérant les testaments comme des vœux et comme l’expressions de la position sociale et du système culturel, social et économique dont les parents étaient issus.
Une attention particulière sera consacrée au rôle des femmes.
Discussant: Dr. Luigi Lorenzetti
 
8.  Are Family Systems only for Land Owning Families? The Usefulness of the Concept of “Family System” I
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The concept of family systems has been widely used, not only in Europe where the most common typology originated, but virtually in every corner of the world. It is thought that these systems, which refer essentially to household co residence and inheritance patterns, affected many other aspects of society. Thus it became essential to categorize each society unambiguously according to which type of system it exemplified. This session aims to evaluate the utility of the concept. Recently several scholars have shown a de facto resemblance between families in what were supposed to be nuclear family systems and stem family systems because in both the youngest child remained behind in the household with the elderly parents. Are these, then, really two different types of family systems? Since these types are based in inheritance patterns, did they apply to families with little or nothing to inherit? When families moved to urban areas, did they continue the same family system that was supposedly typical of the rural areas from which they came ? Was it inheritance or other factors, such as the care of the older generation, that brought these systems about and led to their continuation? Can we devise another set of types that might be more useful for non-agricultural settings or should we abandon typologies altogether?
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Contributor: Dr. Jan Kok - Family systems and regional variations in illegitimacy   Show
Contributor: Dr. Jan Kok - Family systems and regional variations in illegitimacy   Hide
Family systems and regional variations in illegitimacy

In order to understand the remarkable regional variation of demographic phenomena in the world, scholars often make use of typologies of ‘family systems’ as they have been constructed by, for instance John Hajnal (1965), Emmanuel Todd (1991) and, more recently, Göran Therborn (2004). These systems have been evoked to explain differences in ages at marriage, celibacy rates, household size and composition, inheritance patterns et cetera. However, the variation in extramarital births (‘illegitimacy’) is rarely discussed or placed within these typologies. Is this because the phenomenon is more related to acute social problems and cultural changes than to the longue durée of family structures? Does illegitimacy form the limit of what family systems can explain? Or should we adjust our thinking on family systems to include ‘illegitimacy’?
In this paper, I will discuss the merits of various family systems typologies with respect to understanding regional variation in extra marital births. I will also look at the current situation: to what extent can the current variation be seen as a continuation of patterns in the past? What can this tell us about the concept of the ‘second demographic transition’?

Contributor: Prof. Dr. Michel Oris - Family systems and forms of cooperation between social groups in preindustrial Europe   Show
Contributor: Prof. Dr. Michel Oris - Family systems and forms of cooperation between social groups in preindustrial Europe   Hide
Family systems and forms of cooperation between social groups in preindustrial Europe

In preindustrial Europe, the famous Malthusian balance between population and scarce resources was mediated trough social structures and regulated by family systems. The latter always controlled access to the marriage and migrations. Indeed, for people who did not really have the opportunity to control births and deaths, they were key elements to avoid an excessive demographic growth. Individual aspirations were inscribed in a frame of formal (legal) rules as well as cultural ones, learned within the family during child socialization. Such apprenticeship of the world, of the options, constraints, and obligations, was of course quite different according to the social status, especially land ownership. A neglected point in the study of past family systems is that such social differentiation has often resulted in forms of cooperation between social groups, especially through exchange of labour force and consequently peculiar migration patterns (according to gender, age, seasonality, etc.). Sometimes exchanges were local between classes living in the same region, sometimes they implied long roads and long absences with subsequent effects on the matrimonial market and/or fertility in the area of origin. The aim of this paper is to provide a synthesis of a rich material scattered in many monographs, to describe the various forms of cooperation, and to establish their role within the family and demographic systems.
Contributor: Dr. Mikolaj Szoltysek - Families East and West in the Eastern European Context: are there Different Sets of Rules?   Show
Contributor: Dr. Mikolaj Szoltysek - Families East and West in the Eastern European Context: are there Different Sets of Rules?   Hide
Families East and West in the Eastern European Context: are there Different Sets of Rules?

At least since the 1970s, scholars have long been led to believe that it is possible to brand major areas of Europe as having a particular type of family system. This long preoccupation with distinguishing between the area of the allegedly “unique” Northwest European pattern, and other zones, turned out to be itself ill-informed and led to a dead end in construction of sociological theory. Nevertheless, this view has persisted, despite the appearance of empirical studies which suggest a more variegated picture of family systems across the continent. The idea that some regions of Europe might have represented a different family system was particularly firmly expressed in picturing the residence patterns of Eastern Europeans. The European East has usually been portrayed as the area par excellence of large and complex households, and at the same time family forms in historical East-Central Europe have been included by induction in well-established generalizations about the Russian peasantry. Within a similar cognitive framework, “East European” otherness is now being reinforced in the discourse on current population processes, in which Eastern Europe not unusually acts as the constitutive ‘Other’ of Western Europe in regards to demographic behaviours, and in which East-West differences in marriage and household formation are believed to have been remarkably resilient to change. This paper starts with presenting proofs for arguing that such a rightful wish to classify and compare forms of household and family over time and between cultures was quite often based on the evidence that was no more than suggestive and felt short of exacting standards of proof, leading in consequence to unwarranted and tentative generalizations about family patterns in Eastern Europe. The attachment of scholars to a homogeneous view of ‘Eastern European families’, will then be confronted with the investigation into the largest collection of household listings ever assembled for preindustrial Eastern Europe (230 parishes, 1000 localities, 27.000 households, 156.000 individuals), from the areas of historical Poland, Belarus, and Ukraine. With the application of a variety of methodologies three regional family patterns will be distinguished on the historical Polish territories, their main characteristics described and then juxtaposed against the major features of paradigmatic examples of the ‘Eastern European family type’.
Discussant: Prof. Alice Bee Kasakoff
 
9.  Are Family Systems only for Land Owning Families? The Usefulness of the Concept of “Family System” II
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The concept of family systems has been widely used, not only in Europe where the most common typology originated, but virtually in every corner of the world. It is thought that these systems, which refer essentially to household co residence and inheritance patterns, affected many other aspects of society. Thus it became essential to categorize each society unambiguously according to which type of system it exemplified. This session aims to evaluate the utility of the concept. Recently several scholars have shown a de facto resemblance between families in what were supposed to be nuclear family systems and stem family systems because in both the youngest child remained behind in the household with the elderly parents. Are these, then, really two different types of family systems? Since these types are based in inheritance patterns, did they apply to families with little or nothing to inherit? When families moved to urban areas, did they continue the same family system that was supposedly typical of the rural areas from which they came ? Was it inheritance or other factors, such as the care of the older generation, that brought these systems about and led to their continuation? Can we devise another set of types that might be more useful for non-agricultural settings or should we abandon typologies altogether?
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Contributor: Dr. Beatrice Craig - Inheriting the Family Firm and the Concept of Family Strategies   Show
Contributor: Dr. Beatrice Craig - Inheriting the Family Firm and the Concept of Family Strategies   Hide
Inheriting the Family Firm and the Concept of Family Strategies

Once popular, the concept of “family strategy”, understood to refer to long term plans to preserve or raise a lineage’s socio-economic status over several generations, has come under attack. The concept, say the critics, is really ambiguous and ill defined, and often applied to any detectable behavioural pattern. Intents are inferred from behaviour without knowing what determined them, or what kind of constraints bore on them. Unintended consequences are not taken into consideration either. “Strategies” also suggest a capacity to make long term plans which most people in the past lacked. Finally, it reifies “the family”. Who was actually making the decisions? For whose benefit? At whose expenses?
Scepticism about the concept has led some scholars to suggest thinking in terms of tactics – short term adaptations to changing circumstances instead. Tactic thus defined however are reactive and minimize the fact past people could and do make plans for the near and less near future, and that they used tactics to try to stay on course. The relationship between behaviour and intent is rarely obvious; this however does not mean it is always invisible- or that none of this relationship can be ascertained. The sum total of observable tactics may amount to plausible strategies. The concept of family strategy may not be able to deliver all the insights its initial proponents claimed, but it is not a useless one either.
This concept has also been used overwhelmingly to try to understand the behaviour of families in agrarian societies. It seems an obvious tool when studying societies where life chances depend heavily on inherited properties as well as on inherited social and cultural capital. Its use is far less obvious when studying liberal -industrial societies, where, it was claimed, all that mattered – and should matter- were individual efforts. The perpetuation to this day of family firms shows that families and family networks still matter. Families with firms do strategize, with different consequences for the individuals constituting the family. My paper will investigate multigenerational strategies used by industrial families in a French textile town (Tourcoing) in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.
Contributor: Prof. Renzo Derosas - Between coercion and constraints: marriage and social reproduction in 19th-century Italy   Show
Contributor: Prof. Renzo Derosas - Between coercion and constraints: marriage and social reproduction in 19th-century Italy   Hide
Between coercion and constraints: marriage and social reproduction in 19th-century Italy

Modern Italy has been defined the “burial ground for many of the most ambitious, and well-known, theories of household and marriage systems proposed by historians, sociologists, and demographers.” Indeed, notwithstanding the huge research work carried out in the latest years, no acceptable theory providing a general clue to understanding household and marriage systems in Italy seems yet at hand’s reach; rather, the target itself seems to have been abandoned as impossible or scarcely meaningful. If one considers the main constituents of family systems, such as age at marriage, proportions married, rules of family formation, household structures, inheritance rules, presence of life-cycle service, they combine in a variety of ways as to contradict the most popular models developed by social scientists. Although some broad taxonomies can be outlined, suggesting the prevalence of specific family systems in certain areas, a closer look reveals a degree of variability in time and space which makes any effort of generalization and categorization hardly tenable.
Leaving classificatory problems aside, this paper suggests a different interpretative framework, pointing out social reproduction as the main organizing principle of family arrangements. If the Italian family system appears so hopelessly complex, this depends on the multiplicity of the political, economic and social organizations in which it was framed. Albeit in different ways, however, all family arrangements were functional to their reproduction. Their concern included not only the prosecution of the lineage, the safeguard of economic assets (if any), and the maintenance of social standing and social capital. It included also more basic and daily issues such as the organization of the household as a work and consumption unit, the care for the elderly and the children, and all other aspects concerning the subsistence and survival of the household members in the short and medium term.
In all of this, marriage obviously played a fundamental role. Securing a regular and smooth reproduction of social structures required a tight and continuous control on family organization, and above all on the way marriages were managed. This was carried out through a complex and continuous interplay of factors of coercions and hindrances. Relying on the analysis of nuptiality in six Italian populations in the late 18th and 19th century, the papers shows that marital behavior was largely affected by a large set of coercive and hindrance factors, which could be related to the requirements of social reproduction. It also argues that the strength of the control on social reproduction deeply affected the dynamism of societies and the corresponding changes in family patterns. Conservative and stationary societies, characterized by long-term economic stagnation, hostility towards innovation, and preference for rent seeking positions, found a fundamental pillar in the social reproduction guaranteed by the family system which most befitted their functioning. Correspondingly, it was the failure in the reproductive mechanisms, such as marriage misalliances, sterility, and assets partition, which represented the main factors of transformation of economic and social hierarchy.
Contributor: Prof. Alice Bee Kasakoff - Eldery Care and Family Systems   Show
Contributor: Prof. Alice Bee Kasakoff - Eldery Care and Family Systems   Hide
Eldery Care and Family Systems

Family systems have often been understood and explained from the point of view of the younger generation. Commonly they are seen as ways families hand down their property. The implications for the life chances of the next generation of different household arrangements are key, whether it is to secure the survival of a family farm or business or of the younger generation itself. But family demography has always been shaped by the present and now we are facing a crisis of aging. What can we learn from the past and from societies with quite different kinship systems in other parts of the world as we face these demographic changes ? In this paper I discuss the issues that arise when family systems are seen from the point of view of the older generation. I view the care of the elderly as the outcome of three separate forces: economic, demographic and cultural/ideological. After a lengthy introduction, I present an example from the US North which shows how favorable demographic circumstances were able to keep one child behind to care for elderly parents and also pioneer new farms or in the non farm sector. I ask whether it is possible to distinguish inheritance from elderly care as a motive for the maintenance of family systems in this and other cases where the generations co reside. Then I discuss marriage systems from the point of view of elderly care using ethnographic examples. In several of these cases the older generation actively intervenes in the marriages and living arrangements of their children so that they will be cared for in old age. Wives usually outlive husbands, whether in the past or today, resulting in conflict between husbands and wives . Finally, I discuss the role of ideology and contrast filial piety in Chinese history with filial piety in Roman history. Did these two ideologies arise under similar demographic and economic circumstances ? My aim is to show how looking from the point of view of the elders alters our understanding of family systems.
Discussant: Prof. Dr. Mary Louise Nagata
 
10.  Looking backward to better understand the future of Historical Demography I
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The creation in 1960 of an International Commission of Historical Demography (ICHD) within the International Committee for Historical Sciences (CISH), at its General Assembly in Stockholm, marked the birth of Historical Demography as a field of inquiry. The 21st International Congress of Historical Sciences in Amsterdam will allow historical demographers to celebrate the 50th anniversary of their discipline !
During this conference, ICHD will organize a Round table "Reassessing historical demography: Where we are and where we are going” which reassesses our current direction. Major new directions in the field will be discussed.
The present panel will aim present the life course of historical demography, its inventors and beginnings.
Contactperson:
Organizer:
Contributor: Prof. Dr. Ioan Bolovan - Half a century of Historical Demography in Romania (1960-2010)   Show
Contributor: Prof. Dr. Ioan Bolovan - Half a century of Historical Demography in Romania (1960-2010)   Hide
Half a century of Historical Demography in Romania (1960-2010)

Demographic history in Romania is about five decades old if we take into account the fact that Ştefan Pascu participated in 1960 in the World’s Congress of the International Committee of Historical Sciences in Stockholm, where the International Commission of Historical Demography was founded. Moreover, Ştefan Pascu was later elected president of the International Commission of Historical Demography (1975-1985). Following the publication of Louis Henry and Michel Fleury’s book in the middle of the sixth decade of the XXth century, the importance of parish records as historical and demographic sources has been constantly underlined. During the seventh and eight decades of the XXth century, some historians from the university and research institutes from Cluj, Iaşi, and Bucharest tried to impose the new research direction in the Romanian historiography (Ştefan Pascu, Ecaterina Negruţi, Ştefan Ştefănescu, Gheorghe Platon, Louis Roman, etc.); however, for the time being, the distinction between demography and historical demography was difficult to be made. In September 1977 Ştefan Pascu organised in Cluj-Napoca an international colloquium of historical demography. By the efforts of Şt. Ştefănescu, Paul Cernovodeanu, and L.Roman, the Laboratory of historical demography was founded inside the University of Bucharest and “N.Iorga” Institute; during the ninth decade of the last century this laboratory was the most important formal framework for promoting historical demography. Moreover, in the middle of the eight decade, historical demography was introduced as optional course in the curricula of the faculties of history from Bucharest, Cluj and Iaşi. After 1989, given the renovation of the Romanian historiographical discourse emancipated from any ideological or political constraint, a constant tendency appeared inside the faculties of history and the research institutes from Bucharest, Iaşi, Cluj-Napoca, Oradea, Arad, etc. to promote the studies on historical demography, history of mentalities, and historical anthropology. Thus, after 1990, we have assisted to a real process of “rediscovering” historical demography, to topics related to the history of the marginalized population or to topics that had been less studied before through the interdisciplinary perspective.
In conclusion, this communication will make a synthesis of the stages of historical demography institutionalization in Romania, will present an overview of the Romanian research in this field during the last 50 years, and will draw the evolutionary perspectives of historical demography in the next decades.
Contributor: Dr. Rolf Gehrmann - La démographie historique en Allemagne.   Show
Contributor: Dr. Rolf Gehrmann - La démographie historique en Allemagne.   Hide
La démographie historique en Allemagne.

Quatre aspects seront évoqués au cours de la conférence : les traditions historiographiques dans lesquelles s´inscrivait l´histoire de la population (Bevölkerungsgeschichte) dans les années 1950 – 1970, le renouveau effectué par la démographie historique « importée », les résultats de ce travail et le cadre dans lequel il se poursuit, et finalement les perspectives de nos jours.
1. La tradition de la « Bevölkerungsgeschichte » ne reposait pas seulement sur l´étude des grandes lignes de l´évolution de la population, mais avait aussi un corollaire sociologique avec des racines dans un contexte historique compromettant. W. Conze représente ce type d´intérêt pour la population, et l´école de Köllmann à Bochum a essayé de travailler dans ce sens, mais elle n´a pas saisi l´importance des nouvelles démarches de la démographie historique et n´a de ce fait pas suffisamment participé à la discussion internationale.
2. La recherche renouvelée dans les années 1970 prit son point de départ dans la découverte d´une documentation exceptionnellement riche en reconstitutions de famille existant en Allemagne. La redécouverte de ces sources par J. Houdaille et J. Knodel et d´autres travaux de chercheurs étrangers comme R. Lee ont suscité l´intérêt pour cette nouvelle discipline et encouragé des chercheurs comme Imhof à s´engager dans de vastes programmes de recherche. Si Imhof a toujours gardé la perspective internationale et comparative, d´autres chercheurs ont privilégié la perspective régionale, à laquelle la démographie historique se prête particulièrement en Allemagne.
3. Dans l´Allemagne réunifiée la démographie historique semblait avoir pratiquement disparu, ce qui était du à la perte d´un ancrage universitaire. Les recherches précédentes n´ont pas trouvé de prolongement et des banques de données constituées par elles ne sont que peu exploitées. Ces dernières années un certain renouveau peut être constaté néanmoins. Le Cercle de Travail de Démographie Historique (Arbeitskreis für Historische Demographie) est toujours actif et reste un forum de discussion important de la discipline. Au niveau des institutions, c´est actuellement le Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research (Rostock) qui manifeste la plus grande activité dans le domaine, et aux universités de Halle et de Rostock la démographie historique est représentée depuis peu.
4. Les thèmes de recherche de la démographie historique en Allemagne sont certes multiples, mais deux perspectives semblent être particulièrement intéressantes. Il va de soi que la séparation artificielle entre une histoire de la population qui s´occupe de phénomènes généraux et une démographie historique qui reste terrée au niveau des paroisses n´est plus d´actualité. La démographie historique (parfois appelée aussi recherche historique de population – « historische Bevölkerungsforschung » – pour ne pas être étiquetée comme micro-recherche exclusive) va se consacrer davantage au 19e siècle et, dans la mesure du possible, essayer d´aller dans le sens d´une reconstruction de la population allemande pour les siècles précédentes.
Contributor: Dr. Isabelle Seguy - L’école française de démographie historique (1950-2000): forces et faiblesses   Show
Contributor: Dr. Isabelle Seguy - L’école française de démographie historique (1950-2000): forces et faiblesses   Hide
L’école française de démographie historique (1950-2000): forces et faiblesses

Nous nous appliquerons à retracer l’histoire de ce qu’on a appelé « l’école française de démographie historique », du contexte scientifique et politique de l’Après-Guerre qui en a permis l’émergence, jusqu’à son profond renouvellement ces trente dernières années.
Enfantée dans la douleur, la démographie historique française a longtemps porté les stigmates de la lutte que se sont livrés, pendant deux décennies, historiens et démographes pour imposer une méthode d’étude des registres paroissiaux. La publication du Manuel de dépouillement et d’exploitation de l’état civil ancien par L. Henry et M. Fleury, en 1967, a placé, pour un temps, la démographie historique sous l’autorité scientifique des démographes de l’Institut national d’études démographiques (INED).
Unité de sources (les registres paroissiaux), unité de temps (XVIIe-XVIIIe siècle), unité de méthode (les fiches de famille), thématique prioritaire (la fécondité légitime), mode d’emploi académique (le Manuel) : tout concourait à la production de nombreuses monographies, toutes standardisées. Leurs résultats, associés à ceux des deux grandes enquêtes rétrospectives lancées par l’INED en 1958 et en 1980, ont fondamentalement renouvelé la connaissance des comportements des populations du passé, mettant en lumière les traits caractéristiques de l'ancien régime démographique.
Toutefois, enfermée dans des cadres étroits et rigides, la monographie paroissiale ne pouvait satisfaire les historiens, conscients des « richesses en friche » qui subsistaient, tant dans les actes de l’état civil ancien que dans des sources complémentaires. Au début des années 1980, les historiens-démographes se sont tournés vers des thématiques nouvelles, plus qualitatives que quantitatives, telles que l’histoire des mentalités, de l’enfant, de la famille. Le leadership s’est peu à peu replacé du côté des historiens et du Laboratoire de démographie historique, dirigé par J. Dupâquier, qui lançait à son tour une enquête rétrospective sur un échantillon de 3000 familles.
L’orientation plus contemporaine de cette enquête (1800-1939) ouvrait très largement le champ des possibles : l’état civil moderne étant plus informatif, les sources complémentaires plus nombreuses et plus détaillées. Si la méthode restait la même (reconstitutions des familles), l’objectif n’était plus seulement démographique, les questions socio-économiques et socio-culturelles figuraient au premier plan.
En un demi-siècle, la démographie historique française a profondément évolué. Les méthodes et les objectifs essentiellement démographiques qui l’avaient fondée en tant que discipline nouvelle ont évolué sous la pression des historiens et à la faveur du développement de la micro-informatique. Une démographie historique peut donc en cacher une autre : sources, objets d’études, méthodes et outils, champs chronologiques : toutes ses composantes ont été élargies et renouvelées.
Contributors: Prof. Eugenio Sonnino & Lucia Pozzi - History of Historical Demography in Italy   Show
Contributors: Prof. Eugenio Sonnino & Lucia Pozzi - History of Historical Demography in Italy   Hide
History of Historical Demography in Italy

The stages of the evolution of historical demography research in Italy. Studies of historical demography from 1870 to 1970. The Italian Committee for the study of historical demography, 1970-1977. The birth of the Italian Society of Historical Demography (SIDES) in 1977 and its activities till today. The magazines of the SIDES: the "Bulletin of historical demography”, "Population and history”.
Contributor: Prof. Peter Teibenbacher - From a “Population” - issue to a special scientific discipline - a short history of historical demography in Austria   Show
Contributor: Prof. Peter Teibenbacher - From a “Population” - issue to a special scientific discipline - a short history of historical demography in Austria   Hide
From a “Population” - issue to a special scientific discipline - a short history of historical demography in Austria

This paper deals with the very beginnings of demographic research in the Austrian monarchy, the abusage of this young branch by the NAZI-regime and the renaissance as a scientific discipline in Austria in the 1960s. Since 1875 the K.K. Statistische Zentral-Kommisssion edited the Statistische Monatsschrift, containing many articles and reports on demographical issues, mainly but oriented on “population”, even when there were detailled explorations about specific topics, even regarding data from the 18th century. In Europe’s 3rd most populated state, namely the Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy, the state of population played a strong role, like in other big nations too: A strong state needs a strong population. This motto, steming from the times of Absolutism, still was decisive, even for research on population and demographic issues. In the Nazi-era population science and demography were massively abused in a rascist sense. After 1945 therefore these topics obviously were somehow burdened for a longer time. Only since the 1960s research on historical demography, oriented on international standards emerged and was evolved as a special scientific discipline.
Besides the methodological, scientific aspect this paper tries to outline the political backgrounds of research on fertility decline especially.
Discussant: Prof. Dr. Sølvi Sogner
 
11.  Looking backward to better understand the future of Historical Demography II
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The creation in 1960 of an International Commission of Historical Demography (ICHD) within the International Committee for Historical Sciences (CISH), at its General Assembly in Stockholm, marked the birth of Historical Demography as a field of inquiry. The 21st International Congress of Historical Sciences in Amsterdam will allow historical demographers to celebrate the 50th anniversary of their discipline !
Contactperson:
Organizer:
Contributor: Prof. Tamas Farago - The outline of hungarian historical demography   Show
Contributor: Prof. Tamas Farago - The outline of hungarian historical demography   Hide
The outline of hungarian historical demography

The planned paper presents the four stages of this research field in Hungary:

1)the pre WW I period: the positivist beginnings;

2)the transformation and distortion during the interwar period
-the impact of peace treaties on science: contraction both in the size of public and in research possibilities;
-nationalism distorts the historical research in the successor states;

3)the administrative caesura between 1945 and 1956
-the demography becomes a stigmatized research field
-reorganization under the umbrella term: historical statistics

4)the rebirth of the field in the sixties working continuously since that period
-the two schools of research
-difficulties and hardships in quantitative historical studies
Contributor: Prof. Antoinette Fauve-Chamoux - Family/Demography international networks   Show
Contributor: Prof. Antoinette Fauve-Chamoux - Family/Demography international networks   Hide
Family/Demography international networks

The creation in 1960 of an International Commission of Historical Demography (ICHD) within the International Committee for Historical Sciences (CISH), at its General Assembly in Stockholm, marked the birth of Historical Demography as a field of inquiry. The 21st International Congress of Historical Sciences in Amsterdam will allow historical demographers to celebrate the 50th anniversary of their discipline !

During this conference, ICHD will organize a Round table "Reassessing historical demography: Where we are and where we are going” which reassesses our current direction. Major new directions in the field will be discussed.
The present panel will aim present the life course of historical demography, its inventors and beginnings.
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En 1960, la création d’une Commission Internationale de Démographie Historique (CIDH/ICHD) au sein du Comité International des Sciences Historiques (CISH), lors de son Assemblée générale à Stockholm, a été l’acte de naissance de la démographie historique comme domaine de recherche. Le 21e Congrès International des Sciences Historiques, à Amsterdam, donnera aux historiens démographes l’occasion de fêter le cinquantième anniversaire de leur discipline, en 2010.
A cette occasion, la Commission organisera une table ronde sous le titre «Qu’en est-il de la démographie historique? Où en sommes-nous, où allons-nous?», destinée à faire le point sur nos axes de recherche et à les soumettre à discussion.
En complément, le but de la présente session est de présenter comment s’est vécue la démographie historique à ses débuts, le rôle de ses initiateurs et ses premiers pas.
Contributor: Prof. Isabel Moll - La construction d'une discipline: la demographie historique en Espagne (1941-1983)   Show
Contributor: Prof. Isabel Moll - La construction d'une discipline: la demographie historique en Espagne (1941-1983)   Hide
La construction d'une discipline: la demographie historique en Espagne (1941-1983)

Contributor: Prof. Dr. Sølvi Sogner - Historical Demography in Scandinavia   Show
Contributor: Prof. Dr. Sølvi Sogner - Historical Demography in Scandinavia   Hide
Historical Demography in Scandinavia

The paper deals with historical demography in Scandinavia, spanning the fifty years from the CISH-congress in Stockholm in 1960, when Louis Henry first presented the family reconstitution method to historians, and until where we stand today at the CISH-congress in Amsterdam 2010.
Discussant: Prof. Dr. Anne-Lise Head-König